Quantum infrastructure software

Quantum infrastructure software is a segment pioneered by Q-CTRL, and transforms “bare-metal” quantum processors into useful computational tools compatible with Enterprise cloud architectures.

Quantum computers remain at an early stage, but the pace of technical progress points to a rapidly approaching horizon of “Quantum Advantage,” when it’s economically or technologically relevant to choose a quantum computing solution over the best conventional alternative for an important computational problem.

Despite the level of interest from investors, enterprise, and governments, narratives about the emerging quantum industry have been rather one-dimensional, segmenting simplistically between quantum hardware and quantum software and applications. A more nuanced view of the quantum industry shows that lessons learned from the development of classical computing carry over and reveal even broader impacts than originally suspected. 

In particular we now see a new opportunity for value capture through the emerging Quantum Infrastructure Software segment - the “picks and shovels” providers who can help the quantum industry strike gold, and grow with it as it does.  

In order to understand the value of this segment, we can align the various players in the quantum industry against strata already present in the conventional computing and software sector:

  • Teams building quantum computing hardware are enabling cloud access to their systems, aligning them with Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Application and algorithm development and developer-tool focused teams are gravitating towards connecting their innovations to cloud-accessible quantum computers, nad making them available via the cloud, in analogy with Application Software as a Service (SaaS)
  • Hyperscalers like AWS, Microsoft, and IBM are building supporting cloud platforms for end users, aligned with Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS)

In conventional computing infrastructure software is the missing link - the technology that converts “bare metal” IaaS into useful computational tools for SaaS providers.

Q-CTRL is a category-defining business pioneering the development of the Quantum Infrastructure Software segment. Just like in conventional infrastructure software, Quantum Infrastructure Software helps other software teams unlock the value of their own IP and increases the value of cloud-accessible hardware infrastructure.

Analogous examples in conventional computing can help us to understand the importance and impact of this segment. VMWare builds software tools that virtualize hardware, breaking the direct link between the computational system being used by an application developer and the actual computer hardware in use.  This gives huge utility benefits to developers who can - all in software - port their custom configured virtual computers across different cloud platforms or servers, with no visibility into the “guts” of this process.

Infrastructure Software is hard to copy, mission critical, sticky, and has a very large total addressable market. VMWare is a $61Bn company with over $10Bn in revenue, and other infrastructure software providers like Cisco, Juniper Networks, and Citrix are all worth well over $10Bn.

Q-CTRL is the first Quantum Infrastructure Software provider to emerge in the quantum industry. It provides “middleware” that is essential to expanding the utility of quantum computing hardware, improving the experience for application developers, and increasing the value of the hardware platforms themselves by making them more user-friendly. This is quite distinct from “traditional” quantum software teams focused on crafting and deploying algorithms for end-users or consumers of quantum computing. For a full description of the functionality of Quantum Infrastructure Software, see the table at the end of this page.

By analogy with classical infrastructure software such as VMWare’s creations, Q-CTRL’s quantum infrastructure software virtualizes quantum computer hardware, breaking the link between base hardware characteristics and actual quantum computational power. Doing so expands the convenience, cost-effectiveness, and cross-compatibility of hardware to augment utility. Q-CTRL’s infrastructure software goes beyond utility and also massively improves algorithmic performance relative to execution on the bare hardware.

Looking one level deeper, this capability is delivered in three key ways.

  1. Stabilize the hardware and reduce error:  All quantum computing hardware is highly susceptible to error, leading to failed algorithms - the hardware generally just outputs the wrong answer and varies tremendously day to day. The introduction of Q-CTRL’s Quantum Infrastructure Software reduces these errors by thousands of times, improving output quality and stability across use cases and over time to deliver reliable results.  Research has even shown an increase in hardware Quantum Volume - a measure of hardware capability - using error-reducing Quantum Infrastructure Software.
  2. Expand the utility of small prototype systems: Current quantum processor generations vary not only in size but in performance and stability.  Large systems generally have the highest performance but are difficult and expensive to access. Often, even for small test problems end users are forced (often through trial and error) to select expensive premium processors just because they come with better baseline performance.  Customer demonstrations have shown that a moderately priced small quantum processor running Quantum Infrastructure Software could be made to perform indistinguishably from a large premium device, up to limits imposed by system size, and accessible circuit depth on these systems could be extended >10X. This allows more efficient application prototyping for quantum algorithm designers.
  3. Build cross-compatibility between architectures: There is currently no standard instruction set or even hardware architecture in the quantum computing industry, adding major development and adoption roadblocks to enterprise users. This results in algorithms which may deliver exceptional performance on one system suffering massive degradation on another through inefficient translation. By optimizing steps called compilation and hardware-aware transpilation, Quantum Infrastructure Software allows any algorithm to be executed with similar performance on any backend (up to intrinsic hardware limits).  

The net result is the delivery of greater value to quantum algorithm developers with improved convenience and reduced cost. Our most recent product uses AI to autonomously improve the usefulness of quantum computers without the user needing to configure anything or have any visibility into the arcane physics and algorithms powering this process; standard quantum software teams can focus on application development. Aside from the time-savings associated with better use of developer time, this technology also reduces quantum compute costs up to 100X by eliminating overhead in user-applied error mitigation protocols.

Early on, hardware providers looked to take on these challenges themselves. The paradigm of 100% vertical integration in the quantum industry has fallen away for two reasons. First, hardware development requires a specific way of working, and traditionally teams good at building hardware have struggled to also produce great software.  Second, building QC hardware is tough enough - it’s just not reasonable to expect all innovations in the design, construction, and operation of these cutting-edge machines to come from a single organization. The emergence of cloud-accessible quantum computers has accelerated this trend, enabling specialist providers to develop and test their technology without the need to also develop the underlying hardware.

Just as with cloud security software, it’s best to leave mission critical tasks to focused teams with special expertise.

Q-CTRL’s major value-add comes through just such expertise and focus. We operate the world’s largest team of experts in a technical field called quantum control engineering, and have turned this into a unique - and transformational - software offering. In short, we can make quantum computer hardware do things that shock even the teams that build the systems.

The process of quantum-hardware virtualization enabled by Q-CTRL’s high-performance Quantum Infrastructure Software - from individual devices on chip through to entire quantum processors - is also key to the realization of a novel software-defined quantum data center. This new architectural paradigm works with any gate-based quantum computer, enabling full support for hybrid and multi-quantum-processor compute environments. Such a software-defined architecture for Enterprise quantum computing reduces complexity for developers, lowers barriers for quantum computing adoption, delivers faster and better business outcomes, and massively increases the potential customer base beyond quantum experts to IT generalists.

While Q-CTRL is first in the Quantum Infrastructure Software segment, it certainly won’t be the last.  There is a wealth of opportunity in this new segment that can deliver more value to QC algorithm developers and end users, and accelerate the field overall.  Quantum networking and quantum security are two emerging areas where we expect new Quantum Infrastructure Software businesses to appear, but the future is wide open. 

Segmentation of the conventional computing and software market has built a wide range of businesses that have changed the world: Amazon, Microsoft, Dell, Lenovo, Salesforce, Google, Meta, Juniper Networks, Cisco, VMWare, and on, and on. 

Why should the future of quantum computing be any different?

Quantum Infrastructure Software Functional Responsibilities
Quantum Computing Function Quantum Stack Logical Layer
Encoded logical compilation Quantum error correction
Encoding and decoding Quantum error correction
Syndrome processing and correction Quantum error correction
Error correction scheduling Quantum error correction
Hardware-efficient problem mapping Hardware-aware quantum compiler
Hybrid quantum/classical resource management Hardware-aware quantum compiler
Multi-QPU management & routing Hardware-aware quantum compiler
Physical circuit compilation Hardware-aware quantum compiler
Error-aware circuit layout synthesis Hardware-aware quantum compiler
Circuit-level error suppression Hardware-aware quantum compiler
Measurement-error mitigation Hardware-aware quantum compiler
Automated backend configuration management Hardware-aware quantum compiler
Automated device & readout calibration Quantum firmware
Hardware characterization Quantum firmware
Automated quantum-logic-gate optimization Quantum firmware
Physical-layer error suppression Quantum firmware
Physical-level incoherent feedback/forward stabilization Quantum firmware


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